The events industry is like no other. Events are dynamic and fluid with numerous issues surfacing along the way. Events are continuously influenced by both external and internal factors. Whether it is a sporting event, concert, trade show, festival, award show, political convention or party they present a unique set of challenges. Events, regardless of size or situation, are exposed to risks involving safety, security, legal, financial, and environmental considerations. In order for an event to be successful, it must manage all of its obligations appropriately; after all, you only have one opportunity to succeed.
Events can range in size from a small family gathering to a multi-national sporting event, with each requiring qualified and competent planners to address pressing issues. Planning a successful event is no easy task. Planners and venue operators must coordinate the delivery, set-up, use and tear-down of equipment, structures, goods and materials; simultaneously coordinating staff and vendors in an effort to ensure a satisfied client. In order to achieve event success it requires early and thorough planning and continuous monitoring of the operation.
Most event planners and venue operators spend countless hours developing and managing their events; the bulk of which are extremely successful. However, more often than you may be aware, event planners and venue operators are faced with adverse conditions and situations that can and do result in serious injuries and/or deaths. Unfortunately, little is being done to alter the outcomes, not because planners don’t care, but because they don’t know. When you ask an event planner what risk management is most will tell you it has to do with contracts, insurance and security. They are correct, but a key and vital component is missing – safety. Many planners and venue operators are under the impression that those items make-up safety.
Contracts spell out agreements between parties, insurance protects parties in the event of a loss, and security observes and reports suspicious activities, but safety, if done correctly, identifies and mitigates hazards and prevents adverse events from occurring. Many planners and venue operators will identify this as an emergency disaster plan; however, this is not the case. Safety is a proactive measure that is necessary to prevent injuries or damages. Emergency response plans are developed to respond to adverse situations after they occur. In order to achieve a comprehensive risk management plan you need a cohesively designed strategy that includes contracts, insurance, security, safety and an emergency disaster plan. The collective whole is what makes this work.
Risk management planning cannot be left to chance. There are numerous examples of accidents/incidents occurring within the events industry on a daily basis. If you don’t think it can impact your organization, think again. It is a matter of time and exposures before it does. Some recent examples include: a fatal stage collapse in Edmonton, 40 people injured in a hayride accident in Washington, a 12-year old run over by a parade float, and a bouncy house blowing over injuring 6. The number of incidents are staggering and each of these listed were preventable. If you continue to operate without set standards addressing risk you are playing with fire. You cannot identify every risk, but you can adapt your plan to mitigate it, essentially lessening the blow to your bottom line and image. Planners and venue operators must do a better job of developing and implementing fully developed risk management plans in order to ward off any potential ill effects resulting from real or perceived negligence on their part.
So what do you do?
You are an event planner or venue operator trying to plan an event and now you have this to contend with – like you did not have enough on your plate. Don’t be alarmed, the last thing to do is sit and stew in fear doing nothing because it is overwhelming. Information is readily available to planners and venue operators and should be used. Listening to and asking you client questions is a great place to start. Historical data from previous events or reviewing similar ones might provide vital data as well. You could also contact insurance companies that specialize in events and talk to them about the risks associated with your type of event. Your insurance underwriter might even share claims data with you concerning past events. Don’t bank on the data though; sometimes the most telling story is the one that goes untold. Near misses are indicators of possible accidents/incidents. If you notice dozens of people tripping over an electrical cord and no one falls that does not mean that someone won’t. Don’t wait for the little old lady in a walker to come strolling by taking a head first plunge. Utilize recording programs to capture that kind of information and train your staff to identify and eliminate situations like that. Remember, every event tells a story, you just have to invest the time listening to the message.
The final suggestion is to identify regulations and industry common practices that impact your event; easier said than done though, this takes time and training. The volume of regulations, standards, codes, ordinances, common practices, and permits that apply to many events are vast and change from location to location. Most event planners are not risk management experts and you should not pretend to be. There are those in the industry that have assumed the title of risk manager, but are lacking the qualifications and background to support it—a potentially devastating mistake. When an area exceeds the scope of the planner or venue operator it is time to contact a qualified expert in that field. However, if that falls outside of your ability or means there is something you can do. Besides ensuring the existence of contracts, insurance and security, the event planner or venue operator, at a minimum, should ask each vendor, book-in, operator etc., if there are special requirements for their respective operation and are they following the approved safety procedures for whatever it is they are doing. All rental companies (tents, stages, golf-carts, etc.), amusement ride/device operators, food and beverage vendors, and more must comply with specific regulations. Essentially, everybody working at your event should be following a set of rules. Word of advice—you want to see a copy of what they are following (manuals, policies, training guides, etc.). If they squirm or don’t have it—find another vendor.
One thing is for sure—the emphasis on risk management is not going away, in fact, some would say that it is just beginning. The media, both social and traditional, are highlighting the missteps of the event industry more and more. As a result, regulators and attorneys are paying more attention to the industry looking to capitalize on negligent acts. The increasingly competitive and international presence of the events industry warrants swift and decisive action regarding sound risk management measures. When event planners or venue operators contribute or are perceived to have contributed to a preventable accident/incident that results an injury and/or death it is difficult to rebound because of public perception. It is important to show and prove that you did everything you could.
Word of caution—as stated, you cannot identify or eliminate every risk, but at a minimum you should be aware of risks associated with your event based on prior incidents and should follow all regulations and practices in an effort to eliminate or mitigate those risks. If you are a planner or venue operator you should fully understand the requirements to host an event at each new location or venue. Some locations and larger venues will spell it out for you very clearly—in fact, you won’t be able to get much done until you comply. However, other locales are not as aware or forth-coming. A good place to start is with the fire marshal’s office at the location you are hosting the event, but don’t stop there. Event risk management is evolving and the requirements for a safe and successful event are changing. Don’t be a statistic, keep pace with the evolution and remain a competitive industry force with forward thinking.
Events, Tourism & Attractions Safety Regulations & Standards: The Basics
This list is made available for educational purposes only as well as to provide you with general information and understanding concerning the regulations, standards and best practices that apply to the hospitality, tourism and events industries within the United States. This list does not constitute a complete list. The agencies and organizations provided are a snapshot of the regulators or standards writing committees that impact the hospitality, tourism and events industries. Each location, property, facility and event will be impacted uniquely by the agencies and organizations provided and not provided. It is important to analyze your circumstances to determine the regulations, standards and best practices that apply to your situation.
Each locale that you host an event or conduct business will be subject to federal, state, county and local regulations, standards, codes and ordinances. It is important to contact the representatives associated with the location that the event or business will be conducted in order to determine the process and application of various regulations and standards. Jurisdictional requirements can sometimes be complicated and require flexibility and patience. It is important to start the process early. A great place to start at the local level is with the fire marshal’s offices. Additionally, most city websites provide special events information and materials and building code requirements.
As stated… the list provided includes general insight into regulations, standards, etc. that impact the hospitality, tourism and events industries. As a planner or venue operator you must explore and be fully aware of the numerous sections and subsections within the various regulations and standards provided. It puts you, your organization and patrons in jeopardy when you don’t have a clear understanding of the regulations and standards impacting your hospitality, tourism or event location.
- National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) provides fire, electrical and life safety information. The hospitality, tourism and events industries must comply with numerous aspects of NFPA both from permanent and temporary structures. NFPA 101: Life Safety Code, NFPA 102: Grandstands, Folding, and Telescopic Seating, Tents and Membrane Structures, and NFPA 601: Security Services are a few of the numerous standards available and applicable to the hospitality, tourism and events industries provided by NFPA.
- Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) has jurisdiction over workplaces in the U.S. Some find OSHA irrelevant within the events industry because of the temporary nature of the industry. The reality is that there are many regulations that apply to the events industry. OSHA’s Theater Rigging Provisions Section 1926 of the “Safety and Healthy Regulation for Construction,” subpart R is a good example.
- Others believe that an exemption allowing smaller companies to avoid compliance somehow absolves them from meeting OSHA’s expectations on the job. Just because you are exempt from being regulated does not mean you do not have to follow OSHA. Safe workplace practices and adhering to regulations assists in reducing incidents.
Regulations & Standards
- ADA Americans with Disabilities Act-Regulations, standards and best practices concerning the accommodation of employees and visitors.
- ANSI American National Standards Institute-oversees the creation, promulgation and use of norms and guidelines. Many products utilized within the industry are required to be ANSI approved.
- ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Ref. & A/C Eng.-standards writing and guidelines for acceptable use.
- ASTM International-Amusement ride and device, playground, and recreational equipment standards.
- ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms-Regulation and enforcement concerning use.
- CDC Centers for Disease Control-Monitoring, alerts and reporting.
- CPSC U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission-Regulations, standards, and advisories/alerts concerning consumer products…recreation equipment, etc.
- DOJ Department of Justice-Antitrust, civil liberties, etc.
- DOL Department of Labor-Employee labor practices.
- DOT US Department of Transportation-Traffic management, pedestrian safety and signaling/signage requirements, standards and industry best practices.
- EPA Environmental Protection Agency-Regulations, standards and industry best practices for spills, etc.
- FAA Federal Aviation Administration-Airspace management.
- FDA Food and Drug Administration-Regulations, standards and industry best practices.
- FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency-Disaster preparedness and response.
- IMO International Maritime Organization-Regulations, standards and industry best practices in international waters.
- IRS Internal Revenue Service-Taxes, reporting and liabilities.
- ISFP International Society for Fall Protection-Requirements, standards and industry best practices…elevated platforms, rafters, catwalks, etc.
- NEC National Electric Code-Electrical safety for the electrical trade…fairs, festivals, conventions, etc.
- NFPA National Fire Protection Association-Provides fire, electrical and life safety information.
- NHCA National Hearing Conservation Association-Guidelines for acceptable noise levels and exposure…concerts, festivals, heavy equipment, etc.
- NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety-Workplace injury/illness prevention.
- NLSI National Lightning Safety Institute-Lightning guidelines… outdoor events, buildings, etc.
- NSPF National Swimming Pool Foundation-Regulations, standards and best practices.
- OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration-Employee safety.
- UL Underwriters Laboratories Inc.-Product safety verification… electrical, heating, etc.
- U.S. Coast Guard – Costal waterways-Vessel checks, accident reporting and use.
- USDA United States Department of Agriculture-Food safety guidelines and alerts.
- USFWS US Fish and Wildlife Service-Education and permitting for select activities and events.
On August 13, 2011 at approximately 8:50 p.m. EST a tragic incident occurred at the Indiana State Fair killing 5 and injuring dozens more. A 60-70 mph (estimated) gust of wind triggered the incident and brought down the metal scaffolding supporting lights, speakers and other equipment onto the audience below. The stage was set for the band, Sugerland. It was estimated that 200 patrons were seated in the VIP area known as the “Sugar Pit” when the collapse occurred.
Governor Mitch Daniels of Indiana has termed this incident as a “fluke” that no one could have anticipated. A fluke can be described as an accident or chance happening. An accident states that an unforeseen, unplanned event or circumstance occurs and that this event transpires from a lack of intention or necessity. This was no fluke… this incident resulted from a combination of a lack of planning and structural failure. This incident was preventable.
Indiana is prone to these types of volatile weather events. Several articles discussed two separate weather related incidents in Indiana that impacted events. In 2006, tornado-force winds hit Indianapolis following a John Mellencamp concert. In 2004, a tornado forced the interruption of the start of the Indianapolis 500. Governor Daniels stated that no one could have foreseen such a strong gust. Weather can be a funny thing; however, the event planners and venue operators had historical evidence suggesting that catastrophic wind events can and do occur in this region. A plan should have been developed that appropriately monitored and evacuated patrons in the event of a storm. Witnesses say Indiana state police took to the stage to issue a weather warning about 10 minutes before. Where was the evacuation order? Clearly they missed a primary indicator and opportunity to avoid unnecessary devastation.
In 2009, Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic hosted the debut of its manned spaceship in the Mojave Desert—another wind prone area. The night of the event, hurricane-force winds leveled the event’s main tent. The difference was that the event planners and venue operators had a plan. The weather was being continuously monitored by event staff and upon the recognition of a severe windstorm the patrons were evacuated. The event planners decided long before the weather turned serious to ask patrons to seek safety and shelter elsewhere. Staged buses were available to guests for shelter. This is an excellent example of pre-planning and averting unnecessary losses. Governor Mitch Daniels said precautions were taken before the storm – what did that include?
The second failure was the stage – an entirely different topic. It is difficult to determine the cause of the collapse without inspecting it. It is evident that it failed under the winds it was subjected to, but why? Were supporting beams (braces) in place? Were guy-wires in place? Was the cabling secure and adequate? Was it inspected before use? Who did the inspection? Was the roof vented for wind? Was this stage rated for this kind of wind? Was it installed properly? There are so many questions to answer concerning this device. Hopefully, the event planners and venue operators asked them ahead of time.
Risk management planning cannot be left to chance. There are numerous examples of accidents/incidents occurring within the events industry on a daily basis. If you don’t think it can impact your organization, think again. It is a matter of time and exposures before it does. Some recent examples include: a fatal stage collapse in Edmonton, 40 people injured in a hayride accident in Washington, a 12-year old run over by a parade float, and a bouncy house blowing over injuring 6. Now, we have 5 dead and dozens more injured from another stage collapse. The numbers of incidents are staggering and all preventable. Planners and venue operators must do a better job of developing and implementing fully developed risk management plans in order to prevent incidents such as this.
Case Study… Think About It!
Imagine this: You are planning an evening gala at a hotel. You selected a location that has an impeccable reputation for service and accommodating people’s every need. You took extra care in your selection because you needed to accommodate 10 attendees with special dietary needs – several of them were high profile clients. The chef at this hotel was world renowned and was readily available to discuss and plan for service. Prior to the event you met with the chef to explain the menu and address the concerns of several key meals. It was explained that one of the guests was
highly allergic to egg and dairy. The chef said he would personally oversee the egg- and dairy-free meal. As stated, the chef personally cooked and delivered the egg- and dairy-free meal. The chef assured the guest that the meal was allergy free and had met her egg- and dairy-free requirements. The guest thanked the chef profusely and never doubted for a second that there would be a problem with it.
The guest took several bites of the meal and started to have an allergic reaction. Within minutes the guest was experiencing anaphylactic shock – her throat was closing and she was having difficulty breathing. Fortunately, someone knew about her allergies and Epi-pen and was able to obtain it and administer a shot. Unfortunately, she had left her Epi-pen in her coat at the coat check, which wasted valuable time nearly resulting in her death. The woman survived, but was taken to an area hospital for further treatment and observation. The quick action of a friend and the organized effort by staff to call EMS prevented a tragic incident from occurring. It was later determined that the chef had used a utensil that had trace elements of egg from another dish.Some things to consider:
- Did the chef commit to something he did not fully understand? What should the chef have done differently?
- Are most chefs and cooks fully aware of the sensitivities allergic people have to food? What can be done to change this?
- How do you prevent this from happening? What type of questions should you ask?
- What kind of policies and procedures should have been in place to accommodate guests with food allergy concerns?
- Should you train staff to respond to allergic reactions? How do you train them?
- Can you deny a person service based on food allergies? Why or why not?
- What should the allergic person have done differently?
- Did the chef open himself and the location up to liability as a result of his actions? Why or why not?